Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (2022)

On the 40th anniversary of the raids, we reflect on the lasting impact the protests had on the city’s LGBTQ2S+ community and police

Four decades ago, a cataclysmic shift took hold of Toronto’s splintered LGBTQ2S+ community. In a deliberate attempt to eradicate one of the city’s sole bastions of queerness, two hundred cops stormed several of the city’s gay bathhouses, bashing in walls and mass arresting the people inside. The raids were part of what police called Operation Soap.

Many of the police were in plain clothes, but the thundering of boots indicated to many unsuspecting men inside the bathhouses that something was awry. Some men clung to each other in fear as police hurled homophobic insults and violent threats their way. Many men were half-naked, barred by police from retrieving their clothes and forced to endure the cold February air before being thrown into the backs of police trucks. When the bathouses were raided, some men were having sex while others were simply resting. Police battered down doors and placed men in handcuffs indiscriminately, humiliating and degrading everyone in their wake—many of whom were still firmly in the closet and trying to survive in the oppressively homophobic social climate of 1981.

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What followed was the emergence of the modern gay rights movement in Canada. Queer folks took to the streets in the days that followed the raids, overwhelming police and declaring with unrelenting force that enough was enough.

But the Toronto bathhouse raids were hardly the first of their kind, and they were far from the last. Queer folks have always resisted oppression, while those in positions of power—including police and government—have often positioned themselves as our most adamant and forceful oppressors. Broken and beaten down, Toronto’s LGBTQ2S+ community rose out of the raids determined to fight for emancipation.

As the 40th anniversary of the raids approaches, here’s everything you need to know about the context and aftermath of what has been called “Canada’s Stonewall.”

What was the state of queer rights in Canada before the 1981 raids?

In 1969, the Canadian government “decriminalized” homosexuality. The state, to paraphrase Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, was found to have no place in the bedrooms of the nation. Over the years, the Government of Canada has been quite self-congratulatory over this move, commissioning a special coin in 2019 to celebrate 50 years of gay rights (the coin depicted two overlapping faces with the word “equality” scrawled in English and French).

But for Tom Hooper, the idea that queer people achieved equality in 1969 is preposterous. Hooper is a historian whose research has often centred around Canadian bathhouse raids—including the raids of 1981. He has meticulously documented the persistent efforts on the part of both police forces and governments to silence, arrest, beat and humiliate queer people. He says the decriminalization of homosexuality is directly linked to the many co-ordinated raids across the country that followed 1969.

“In 1969, no laws were repealed,” Hooper explains. “Because of how narrow that change actually was in 1969, it almost pointed police to the baths. It told them to look for places where we were outside the ‘bedrooms of the nation.’”

Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (1)

Hooper has tracked bathhouse raids as far back as 1968, when 35 people were arrested at The International in Toronto. Since then, according to Hooper’s research, more than 1,400 arrests have occurred at bathhouse raids between ’68 and 2004, when two people were arrested at the Warehouse Spa and Bath in Hamilton, Ontario for “indecent acts.” These raids have occurred in multiple Canadian cities, although Operation Soap yielded the most arrests in one night.

The 1970s—the decade that followed the so-called decriminalization—was a tumultuous period for queer folks in Canada. Although their private sexual interactions were technically legal for the first time, LGBTQ2S+ people frequently faced police harassment and could be charged with any number of offences, including buggery (often referring to anal sex) and gross indecency (often focused on oral sex). Homophobia ran rampant, and neither the Ontario Human Rights Code nor the Canadian Human Rights Act included sexual orientation or gender identity as protected grounds—meaning that it was legal to discriminate against queer and trans folks merely for being queer or trans. Coming out was a dangerous thing, and bathhouses represented a place where queer folks—typically cisgender queer men—could have sex without fear of being reprimanded or outed.

(Video) Remembering the 1981 Toronto bathhouse raids | Queer History | Xtra

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“Although their private sexual interactions were technically legal for the first time, LGBTQ2S+ people frequently faced police harassment.”

But the LGBTQ2S+ community was resilient. Some began to organize in an effort to effect legal change against systems that sought to oppress them. Glad Day Bookshop—Canada’s first LGBTQ2S+ bookstore, now the oldest surviving queer bookstore in North America—opened in 1970. A year later, the Body Politic, a radical gay newspaper and a predecessor of Xtra, was founded. Activists also sought to reform the Criminal Code and the Ontario Human Rights Code, but the lack of safeguards for queer people to gather and be themselves made it difficult to co-ordinate and fight.

Meanwhile, institutional powers remained relentless in their efforts to snip activism off at its roots. Bathhouse raids were common. Censorship of LGBTQ2S+ content also abounded: The Body Politic was raided in 1978, and Glad Day was raided in 1982. After 28 were arrested at Toronto bathhouse The Barracks (also in 1978), a few gay activists, including former politician-turned-bathhouse owner Peter Maloney and bathhouse owner George Hislop, decided to take action.

Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (2)

They co-ordinated a fund for the legal costs of those arrested at The Barracks and held a press conference condemning all the raids, including those at The Barracks and the Body Politic, and demanding an end to anti-gay police activity. That small group of activists eventually evolved into the Right to Privacy Committee (RTPC), a landmark organization that led much of the charge in the late ’70s and early ’80s to secure equal rights for gay and lesbian folks.

Some in power began to publicly support the gay community: In the late ’70s, Toronto mayor John Sewell went so far as to publicly endorse Hislop for a city council bid. In response, fundamentalist Christian and right-wing groups launched a media campaign against both Sewell and Hislop, painting them as immoral and sinful. In the city’s 1980 election, both Hislop and Sewell lost, leading some to blame their association with the gay community for their failures.

What happened the night of the bathhouse raids of 1981?

Tim McCaskell was not in the Gay Village when police stormed the baths. McCaskell, a storied gay activist who was an integral part of the Canadian gay rights movement in the 1970s and ’80s, was a reporter for the Body Politic at the time. On the night of Feb. 5, 1981, McCaskell’s editor called him, abruptly woke him up and told him to get to the Village, pronto. “They’re raiding all the baths,” he said.

McCaskell darted to the Village and began interviewing the men who avoided arrest. He saw bathhouse customers being loaded up into police vans by cops. Police were everywhere—arresting men, loitering and occupying the space where queer folks were supposed to be safe. “They looked like a pride of lions that had just killed an antelope,” McCaskell tells Xtra. “They were standing around, very pleased with themselves, and didn’t pay any attention to the people outside because they already had their prey inside.”

What McCaskell did not know at the time is that he bore witness to history: The execution of Toronto Police’s Operation Soap.

Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (3)
(Video) 'Dark era': Apology for 1981 Toronto bathhouse raids

Staff Inspector Donald Banks, who was in charge of the Morality and Intelligence Unit of the Toronto Police Service, rounded up 200 officers to invade the baths and arrest anyone doing anything that could be considered an offence, including masturbation, oral sex, anal sex, prostitution or group sex. The officers gathered at 7 p.m., and by midnight they had raided four Toronto bathhouses—The Barracks, Club Baths, Richmond Street Health Emporium and Romans. In total, 306 were arrested.

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At the time, it was the largest mass arrest in Canada since the War Measures Act was invoked during the October Crisis of 1970. Additionally, the police caused enormous damage against the bathhouses themselves; it’s estimated that $35,000 of property damage was dealt to the buildings by police.

What happened after the raids?

Operation Soap caused the gay community’s fury against the police and the city to reach a boiling point. Activists like McCaskell began to call for a protest against the police’s actions on the following day, Feb. 6. The Body Politic passed out a pamphlet associating Operation Soap with the defeat of Mayor Sewell by Art Eggleton. By midnight, a crowd of several thousand gathered to listen to speeches and march to Queen’s Park. They overwhelmed the organizers, who had anticipated a crowd of just a few dozen. Police showed up once the crowd swelled, but they could do little to control it. The protesters peacefully walked to the provincial legislature, launching now-iconic chants like “Fuck you 52!” (a reference to the 52nd division of the Toronto Police, which organized Operation Soap) and “No more shit!”

Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (4)

For McCaskell, the demonstration marked a turning point for the gay community in Toronto. They were finally unified against a common enemy: The police. “The demonstration—that’s where I think the lights went on for so many people,” he says. “They suddenly realized, ‘Shit, we’re powerful! We can do something about this!’”

What effects did the protests have on LGBTQ2S+ rights?

The RTPC saw the demonstration as an opportunity to enact some real change. The committee made a focused effort to use the system against itself. They harnessed the momentum generated on Feb. 6 and zeroed in on specific goals—namely, the elimination of sodomy offences like buggery and gross indecency from the Criminal Code of Canada. They funded the defences of many of those arrested during Operation Soap and helped get a number of them acquitted.

Brent Hawkes, a Toronto gay activist and clergyman, began a hunger strike shortly after the raids. Hawkes demanded that the police begin an inquiry into its homophobic practices. City council members Pat Sheppard and David White asked for the same. In July 1981, Mayor Eggleton, after significant prodding from community members and city council, asked civil rights leader Daniel Hill to lead an inquiry into the city’s relationship with the queer community, who passed it off to Arnold Bruner, a law student and journalist. Bruner’s report eventually concluded that there was, in fact, a gay community, that the bathhouses were integral social and sexual spaces and that there should be a “police/gay dialogue committee” to act as a liaison between the two groups.

“Bruner’s report concluded that there was, in fact, a gay community, and that the bathhouses were integral social and sexual spaces.”

Perhaps the most enduring, tangible and immediate consequence of the demonstrations is the official birth of Pride Toronto. Following the protests, Lesbian and Gay Pride Day was legally incorporated, and the first official Pride took place on June 28, 1981, in Grange Park. It was advertised as a reprieve from the political tension the queer community had gone through that year, and as “an afternoon of fun and frolic.”

The efforts of gay activists succeeded in many ways by the end of the 1980s. In 1987, buggery and gross indecency were combined into “anal intercourse” in the Criminal Code, which was legal for those above age 18. In 1986, sexual orientation was added as a protected ground in the Ontario Human Rights Code. (Gender identity and gender expression were added in 2012.)

(Video) Operation Soap: The police raids that targeted Toronto’s queer community in the 1980s

What still needs to be addressed in the decades after the raids?

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The efforts of activists like the RTPC are not without critics. Their activism was intentionally limited in its scope, often excluding other members of the community, like lesbians and trans folks. Queer women in particular continued to be targeted long after Operation Soap; in 2000, the women’s bathhouse Pussy Palace was raided and shut down by police.

In 2016, the Toronto Police issued an apology to the LGBTQ2S+ community for the bathhouse raids. Then-police Chief Mark Saunders expressed regret on behalf of the Toronto Police Services for the actions taken during that night in 1981. But many community members felt the apology was empty, given the ongoing strife between police and LGBTQ2S+ people.

Tim McCaskell, who was at the forefront of much of the activism surrounding the raids, agrees that many of the problems that spurred Operation Soap still exist. He points to the occupation of Toronto Pride in 2016 by Black Lives Matter, who demanded uniformed police be excluded from the parade, as an example of the progress that still needs to be made.

Everything you need to know about the Toronto bathhouse raids (5)

“For Black Lives Matter, having police in the parade is an affront. For white gay men, this is a sign of progress, because these guys that used to beat us up now want to be in our parade,” McCaskell says. “If queer people start to become a target again, will we be able to produce the same kind of community unity that it took to stop that movement in its tracks back in 1981? I don’t know the answer to that question.”

He also says a full retrospective understanding of the bath raids can provide a template for how queer people approach their relationship to police. Importantly, the community unity that brought about change in the 1980s was only made possible through an intersectional approach to what unity meant. At the time, police were brutalizing white gay men in comparable ways to how they are known to disproportionately target Black folks, Indigenous folks and other people of colour.

“What we did, specifically focused on the question of the police, was to say, ‘We need to try to produce some sort of unity between these communities, knowing that we don’t all agree with everything. But listen, we all need to be on the same page in terms of community accountability of the police,’” he says.

Now that the police no longer specifically target white gay men, that sense of unity has dissipated, says McCaskell. But in the past year, the world has been reckoning with the ways our police forces are instruments of oppression for racialized people—just like they terrorized and oppressed white queer folks 40 years ago. Some within the queer community have forgotten that the rights we celebrate today only came about through a partnership with non-white queer folks. For McCaskell, reconciling that forgotten sense of community through a recollection of our shared history is the only path forward.

“I think that it’s important to talk about the bath raids because you need to talk about the conditions that allowed us to produce the kind of unity we needed to fight back,” he says. “We’ve lost them now, but reproducing them needs to be a really important component of queer politics.”

FAQs

When did the Toronto bathhouse raids happen? ›

The bathhouse raids on 5 February 1981 proved a turning point in relations between Toronto police and the city's gay community.

Why is Operation SOAP important? ›

Although many gay bathhouses had previously been raided in Canada and other smaller raids followed, Operation Soap is considered a special turning point in the history of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in Canada; the raids and their aftermath are today widely considered to be the Canadian ...

Are bathhouses legal in Ontario? ›

On Dec 21 the Supreme Court Of Canada issued a pretty decent decision on indecency — seemingly legalizing gay bathhouses in the process. The case, called R Versus Labaye, involved a swingers' club whose owner had been charged with running a common bawdyhouse.

Where was the Pisces bathhouse? ›

After the Pisces Health Spa opened in Edmonton in 1978, word spread quickly that it was the best-kept gay bathhouse on the prairies — and perhaps beyond. The Pisces was not the first bathhouse in Edmonton, nor would it be the last.

What was the purpose of the bathhouse? ›

In the Song dynasty (960–1279), public bathhouses became popular and ubiquitous, and bathing became an essential part of social life and recreation. Bathhouses often provided massage, manicure, rubdowns, ear cleaning, food and beverages.

What were the bathhouses used for? ›

“1. A place for bathing; a convenient vat or receptacle of water for persons to plunge or wash their bodies in. Baths are warm or tepid, hot or cold, more generally called warm and cold.

What was a bathhouse in the 80s? ›

In a way, the bathhouses served as community centers, offering films and live entertainment, hosting benefits, and offering voter registration and screenings for sexually transmitted infections.

Why is liquid soap preferred to bar soap during a surgical scrub? ›

Why is liquid soap preferred to bar soap during a surgical scrub? It is more difficult to become contaiminated using liquid soap. What microbial advantage is there to paper towels in a rest room over a continuous-feed cloth towel?

Are bathhouses separated by gender? ›

The Japanese have perfected the art of onsen, or hot spring baths, for centuries. Traditionally, men and women would bathe together in the same facility, but these days the baths are segregated by gender. Today, konyoku (mixed-gender onsen) are hard to find, with places like Tokyo having bans on such establishments.

Can you dance in bars in Ontario? ›

Restaurants, bars and lounges can open for in-person dining at 75 per cent capacity. Eating or drinking is permitted only while seated. Masks may only be removed to eat or drink. Dance floors are permitted.

Can a restaurant refuse to let you use the bathroom Ontario? ›

Ontario has no such legal requirement (a Toronto bylaw, however, requires large stores to provide them), and not everyone thinks introducing one would be the best way to solve the problem.

Are bathhouses still a thing? ›

Public bathing isn't quite so popular anymore, but there are still a number of wonderful bathhouses and geothermal hot springs where you can don your bathing suit and enjoy the healing powers of warm mineral waters or traditional massages.

Are Pisces good at swimming? ›

Pisces: 19 Feb – 20 March

Born to it. Amazing swimmers. Intuitive, instinctive, water is their natural home. If you need help in the water, Pisces are your go-to sign – but so willing are they to help others, they may drown themselves in the process.

What is the oldest bathhouse in hot springs? ›

Hale Bathhouse

Built in 1892, it the oldest surviving bathhouse. The Hale has a sauna in a thermal cave carved from the mountainside.

What did slaves do in bathhouses? ›

If you were a wealthy free man or woman, slaves carried your bathing paraphernalia: exercise and bathing garments, sandals, linen towels, and a toilet kit that consisted of anointing oils, perfume, a sponge, and strigils, curved metal instruments used to scrape oil, sweat, and dirt from the body.

Why did they line baths with cloth? ›

They're a softer lining that protects some of the most delicate places. If they had a metal tub, the sheets can be used for one of two reasons. They either offer a lining to prevent the heat of the metal burning or they prevent the coldness of the metal being uncomfortable. It's a very simple answer, really.

What is a bathhouse slang? ›

A gay bathhouse, also known as a gay sauna or a gay steambath, is a commercial space for men to have sex with other men. In gay slang, a bathhouse may be called just "the baths", "the sauna" or "the tubs". In general, a gay bath is used for having sexual activity rather than only bathing.

Were Roman baths unisex? ›

In the Roman bath houses, men and women did not bath together. It was considered to be in poor taste so, each had their own designated time at the bath house. For instance, woman may have been allowed in the bath houses in the morning while men came in in the afternoon.

Are bath houses sanitary? ›

Cleaning can occur throughout the day; staff will be trying to keep a good hygiene standard. However, during the time the bath is closed, typically early morning, a deep clean will take place. At some bathhouses, they employ the use of chlorine to help keep the water clean.

What is a Cleopatra bath? ›

To get the most of a Cleopatra bath, it should not be hotter than 39° and should not last longer than 20 minutes. A variation of the Cleopatra bath is a body mask, where milk and honey are applied to the skin. After, the body gets wrapped in foil and for twenty minutes one relaxes in a waterbed, which is heated to 39°.

What is a three quarters bath? ›

As opposed to a traditional full bath, a three-quarter bath is usually characterized by an efficient combination of standing shower, sink and toilet. This simple but useful design is often used for guest bathrooms, and it can add tremendous utility and value to your home.

How did they empty baths in the 1800s? ›

Emptying the bath

Just as the bath had to be filled by bailing, it also had to be emptied by ladling. Any attempt to move these baths while water was in them would be a mistake because even the slightest of movements created a wave which could flood the floor.

Do Japanese bathhouses still exist? ›

Often overlooked for Japan's famous hot springs, public bathhouses offer a window into everyday life in Japan. These baths are often more affordable and accessible than hot springs, making them an easy way to experience Japanese bathing culture.

How many minutes should a surgical scrub last? ›

Surgical site infections contribute to nosocomial infections. A timed scrub should last for one to three minutes. The best water temperature is very hot; this tends to kill bacteria more quickly. Vigorous scrubbing causes skin to become damaged and should be avoided.

Why do surgeons keep their hands up? ›

Why do surgeons put their hands up after scrubbing? Surgical scrubbing is the removal of the germs and bacteria as possible from the bare hands and arms. After scrubbing, keep both hands above waist and below neckline.

What is the soap they give you before surgery? ›

Because skin is not sterile, you can reduce the number of germs on your skin by carefully washing before surgery. Please follow these instructions. IMPORTANT: You will need to shower with a special soap called chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). A common brand name for this soap is Hibiclens, but any brand is acceptable.

Do you have to be naked in mixed onsen? ›

1. Please note that even though you are bathing together, it still is a strictly no-clothes, nude affair! 2. Some baths that offer konyoku, the Japanese term for mixed-gender hot springs, work in a way where the women have their own bath but can join the men on their side if they are so inclined.

Are there mixed nude baths in Japan? ›

Konyoku (混浴) are mixed-gender baths, a concept that might seem a little risque in a country that generally divides its public baths quite clearly by gender. But the truth is that these baths, open to anyone, have a history going back at least 1,000 years―they may not be common, but konyoku are a long-lasting tradition!

Can couples go to onsen together? ›

Couple onsens are special spaces where the two of you would never be disturbed by other people. Private onsens in guest rooms, in particular, let you spend time with your sweetheart enjoying the hot spring all day long, without the need to go out the door.

What time is last call in Toronto? ›

Ontario: Last call begins at 1:45 a.m. and you are provided with the last fifteen minutes to order an alcoholic beverage. It is no longer legally permissible to serve alcohol past 2 am province-wide although the province has the authority to grant waivers to allow closing at 4 a.m. during special events.

What is the legal clubbing age in Ontario? ›

You must be 19 to get into bars and clubs generally. They are very strict on this and will check ID's of everyone.

Can you walk around with a beer in Ontario? ›

In the province of Ontario drinking in public and public intoxication are serious offences. It is a crime to have an open container in a public space, and that charge comes with a fine. Just like drinking and driving, if you are caught in a state of public intoxication you will also be fined and detained until sober.

Can my employer refuse to let me go to the toilet? ›

Conclusion. There is no law specifically protecting toilet breaks for employees. There are however health and safety duties that must be met as an employer. Restricting toilet breaks possibly jeopardises employee health.

Is access to a toilet a human right? ›

Everyone has occupational rights including access to clean, appropriate toilet and sanitation facilities, which is at the core of the Changing Places Campaign.

Is it a legal right to go to the toilet? ›

The right to access a toilet is a basic human need. Unless both the employee and employer agree to compensate the employee on rest breaks an employer cannot take away the worker's right to access a toilet facility while working.

What were bathhouses in the 80s? ›

In a way, the bathhouses served as community centers, offering films and live entertainment, hosting benefits, and offering voter registration and screenings for sexually transmitted infections.

When did Canada decriminalize homosexuality? ›

From the earliest days of colonization to 1969, sodomy laws made sex between men illegal in Canada. In addition, a law enacted in 1892 made “gross indecency” between men illegal.

How long did occupy Toronto last? ›

Occupy Toronto
Date15 October 2011 – 2012
LocationSt. James Park, Toronto, Ontario
Caused byEconomic inequality, corporate influence over government, inter alia.
MethodsDemonstration, occupation, protest, street protesters
7 more rows

When did bathhouses become popular? ›

Popularized around 600 AD, hammams were also spaces where major life events were celebrated, and bathing rituals were incorporated into weddings and births.

What is a Cleopatra bath? ›

To get the most of a Cleopatra bath, it should not be hotter than 39° and should not last longer than 20 minutes. A variation of the Cleopatra bath is a body mask, where milk and honey are applied to the skin. After, the body gets wrapped in foil and for twenty minutes one relaxes in a waterbed, which is heated to 39°.

Are bathhouses still a thing? ›

Public bathing isn't quite so popular anymore, but there are still a number of wonderful bathhouses and geothermal hot springs where you can don your bathing suit and enjoy the healing powers of warm mineral waters or traditional massages.

What is a bathhouse slang? ›

A gay bathhouse, also known as a gay sauna or a gay steambath, is a commercial space for men to have sex with other men. In gay slang, a bathhouse may be called just "the baths", "the sauna" or "the tubs". In general, a gay bath is used for having sexual activity rather than only bathing.

What percentage of Canada is LGBT? ›

Canada is home to approximately one million people who are LGBTQ2+, accounting for 4% of the total population aged 15 and older in 2018.

When was LGBT first legalized in Canada? ›

In 2003, Ontario and British Columbia became the first two provinces to legalize same-sex marriage. The federal Civil Marriage Act came into force on 20 July 2005, making same-sex marriage legal across Canada.

What is the legal age of consent in Canada? ›

The legal age of consent in Canada is 16 years old.

Exceptions: Persons under 16 years can have consensual sex with someone close in age. These exceptions only apply if the older person is not in a position of authority or trust and there is no exploitation or dependency.

What was the goal of Occupy? ›

The Occupy movement was an international populist socio-political movement that expressed opposition to social and economic inequality and to the perceived lack of "real democracy" around the world. It aimed primarily to advance social and economic justice and different forms of democracy.

What did Occupy Wall Street want? ›

Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a protest movement against economic inequality and the influence of money in politics that began in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, in September 2011. It gave rise to the wider Occupy movement in the United States and other countries.

When did occupy Wall Street end? ›

The Occupy movement splintered after NYC Mayor Bloomberg had police raid the encampment in Zuccotti Park on November 15, 2011. The timeline here is limited to this particular protest during this approximate time-frame (ie., September 17 to November 15, 2011).

What do you wear to a bathhouse? ›

4) All you need is a bathing suit—one-piece or bikini. 5) Yes, it's totally sanitary. "For hygienic reasons, everyone is required to wear special slippers both in and out of the water, so no one is in contact with the floor. We also have an extreme depuration system."

Are bath houses sanitary? ›

Cleaning can occur throughout the day; staff will be trying to keep a good hygiene standard. However, during the time the bath is closed, typically early morning, a deep clean will take place. At some bathhouses, they employ the use of chlorine to help keep the water clean.

Are bathhouses separated by gender? ›

The Japanese have perfected the art of onsen, or hot spring baths, for centuries. Traditionally, men and women would bathe together in the same facility, but these days the baths are segregated by gender. Today, konyoku (mixed-gender onsen) are hard to find, with places like Tokyo having bans on such establishments.

Videos

1. @TorontoPolice @marksaunderstps Expresses Regrets for 1981 Bathhouse Raids
(Toronto Police Service)
2. Police raid medical marijuana dispensaries in Toronto
(CTV News)
3. Why Lesbian Bars Are Disappearing | Rise And Fall
(Business Insider)
4. 1981 Toronto Bathhouse Raids
(Rev. Dr. Brent Hawkes)
5. Toronto police express 'regrets' for '81 raids on bathhouses
(The Canadian Press)
6. Results from the Toronto Bathhouse Survey
(Community-Based Research Centre)

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